A gentle reminder that zoos are not the answer

Okay folks, let’s talk about zoos again.

Some instagram news account recently reposted a cartoon about how zoos educate children on animals not native to where they live, and thus encourage children to get involved in conservation issues when they’re older. The cartoon acknowledged zoos aren’t the best environment for some of the animals there, but that they serve this educational/encouraging purpose and therefore zoos are still serving a purpose, in the year of our lord 2019. I found this post to be well-meaning but naive.

So I make the point in a comment that the problem with zoos is that the animals cannot consent to being locked up and that it is unethical for us to imprison them for purely human objectives. Furthermore, doing so perpetuates this idea that we are lords over non-human animals and that our interests and the interests of animals are incomparable. And, these days, zoos simply are not necessary to educate kids about wild animals, what with the technology and travel capabilities we have. We’re past the days of traveling menageries, before widely distributed photographs and videos. I learned empathy towards animals by having dogs around. Elephants were important to me long before I ever saw one in person (truly one of the saddest experiences of my life – an elephant in a Mississippi zoo).

So anyway I made a short, sincere post and went on with my life. Well, someone responded to it. Which is fine. Except that this individual had gone through my Instagram feed and brought my cat into the argument. 

Image result for excuse me gif

This individual said that my cat could not consent to being locked up as my pet, and that if zoos made kids want to be conservationists then that’s a good thing. The fun part is that she did not offer any evidence that zoos do accomplish this purpose, when my explicit argument was that they do not accomplish this purpose any more than other methods (learning outside of zoos). But she also erroneously connects lack of consent (which is a whole thing, it’s why we can’t marry horses) to a rescued, domesticated animal.

One depressing fact is that a lot of the elephants in India and SE Asia are domesticated, and it’s causing a huge problem figuring out what to do with them now that using them for logging has been banned, because they still need care. Similarly with dogs and cats, we domesticated them and then we were SUPER irresponsible, and now there are too many. And they need to be rescued and cared for (and spayed and neutered, I’m 100% behind that). But the fact is that shelter cats and dogs must be cared for by humans, because they cannot care for themselves. That’s what domesticated means.

So here’s how that connection is severed regarding elephants. First, some zoo elephants are captured from the wild – this ain’t okay. They cannot live healthy lives in zoo enclosures. In fact, even domesticated elephants can’t. Elephants need three things at the very least: (1) lots of room, (2) to forage for food, and (3) not to be separated from their herds or forced to cohabitate with a stranger elephant. The first point is all we need to look at to discredit the idea of zoos being okay at all for elephants. Zoos will *never* build enclosures large enough to house a family of elephants in a healthy way, because (a) they cannot afford to, and (b) a properly sized enclosure would be, essentially, a sanctuary (because we’re talking square miles rather than acres) and zoo visitors would never see the elephants and so what is the point in having them. It’s all about drawing crowds and making money.

We have videos, movies, books, semi-affordable safaris (I mean, I cannot afford them, but maybe someone who feels she is entitled to have the entire animal kingdom physically represented in her hometown can afford one). A kid does not need to see something to care about it – it’s called teaching your child empathy.

Anyway, here are a few arguments for zoos and what I think about those arguments.

“Zoos are educational and teach children about animals”

So do textbooks, videos, and the internet which is included on every single phone and now even 4-year-olds have their own phones.. I know it’s crazy, anyway thank u, next.

“It’s worth having zoos if it contributes to saving a species”

I read an interesting argument somewhere earlier (here) that submitted that a “species” in and of itself is a collection of individuals, and it’s not the existence of the species so much as it is the quality of life of the existing individuals that matters. How do we choose which individuals in a given species are unlucky enough to be subjected to a life of confinement? Again, that humans wield this power over animals and think we are “saving” them is narcissistic and, um, wrong. Like factually incorrect. Zoos do not contribute to saving a species because (a) it’s extremely difficult to reintroduce the animals into the wild, (b) zoo breeding programs are trash, and (c) it’s about money, guys.

Another problem with this one is that a lot of zoo animal species aren’t in trouble. I’ve not embarked on a study of the animals housed in every zoo but it’s not like zoos are saying, “all of the species you see here are endangered and it’s important to save them.” No, all the zoos are worried about is having exhibits with cute animal babies in them to bring in more money. Babies that likely won’t live as long (and definitely not as happily) as their wild counterparts.

The biggest problem I have with all of this is (obviously, by now) that people think they need to be able to see something to care about it, that it’s our right as humans to be able to see wild, powerful animals in the flesh because we want to. What’s with the entitlement? It’s so incredibly selfish. We take for granted the freedom we have, especially in this country, and we don’t find it necessary to bestow that same freedom on animals?

Image result for elephant gif

This little angel isn’t in a zoo, and we would never see something this endearing or playful in a zoo, I would predict. Until I can afford to travel to a reserve I am satisfied watching videos of elephants, cuddling my 3 or 4 stuffed elephants (yes I’m an adult), and encouraging any kid I come in contact with to do the same. And if I ever have a child and they beg to go to the zoo, I would take them (only once) and I would say, “these animals don’t belong in cages, but not everyone realizes that yet. Momma/Mommy/Mother/Dude (whatever the kid calls me) is working to get these animals out and back into the wild, where they belong.”

Moral of the story is do not call out my cat on Insta if you don’t know her, however if your aim is to get a response from me then that is the way to do it.

Have a good Thanksgiving and you don’t have to eat turkey if you don’t want to! Meow

Elephants, Faces, and Whales (oh my!)

Asha, a 35-year-old African elephant, has been at the Natural Bridge Zoo in Virginia for 22 years. Every day, for 22 years, Asha trudges through the same lonely, solitary existence. Every day, she wakes up, and her life is the exact same as it was the day before. And she’s going through it completely alone.

She’s likely been beaten into submission by the “trainers” at this place – in fact, a commenter on Yelp stated he’d been asked to leave when his grandson was riding Asha (problem number one) and the trainer began hitting Asha with a stick. If this zoo’s employees are so bold as to hit Asha in front of patrons, imagine what they’re capable of doing after hours? It is sickening.

She gives rides day after day, even in the sticky, unrelenting heat, with no hope for a better life. No breaks, no proper diet, no proper medical care, no shade….. cracked feet, small quarters, back rides (I can’t) and the list goes on. Any of these is reason enough to shut this stupid zoo down, but the Virginia gaming and whatever crew doesn’t know what’s best for animals anymore than the riff raff over at Natural Bridge Zoo does. In any case, to me, the worst part of Asha’s situation is that she’s completely isolated. She’s alone. Everyday, the same painful, humiliating routine. Alone.

[sign a petition for Asha]

Loneliness is scary. Our identity is wrapped up in the relationships we have with other people, and when those relationships aren’t healthy, or they fail, or we isolate ourselves from others, we question our identity. That’s a big reason for depression and other mental illnesses. I mean, how many times have you been down the Rabbit Hole of Sadness, and it just takes a simple interaction with another human being  for you to snap out of it? It’s so important to have other humans around you to provide perspective when you get stuck. Even serious suffering can be alleviated by shared experience – see benefits of Group TherapyBut imagine being completely isolated, by no fault of your own, and at the hands of a different species, no less. With no way out, and powerless to change your circumstances.

What I am NOT doing is suggesting that Natural Bridge Zoo get a second elephant. No sir. What I am suggesting is that part of the reason zoos are evil is because elephants are isolated. Even within groups of elephants held in zoos, elephants isolate themselves because their fellow inmates are not members of the elephant’s family. Zoo groups are usually brought together in a piece meal manner and it just doesn’t work.

Elephants exhibit signs of loneliness. They are highly social animals that cannot thrive in solitary confinement (who knew?!). They can literally die from the effects of being lonely – they stop eating, don’t get enough nutrients, and die of infection.

But Asha doesn’t even have the option of interacting with another elephant. She just has idiot kids ranting and raving about riding her, and idiot “trainers” that hit her when she does something normal. Basically, everyone is an idiot.

Elephants like Asha exist at a lot of zoos.  Their suffering doesn’t go away when we stop thinking about it.  These animals have done nothing wrong and they deserve so much better.  Big changes must be made so the laws won’t permit this treatment.

If you have the desire to speak out about this particular “zoo,” I don’t quite know what to do other than email/write letters/call both the zoo and whoever is in charge in Virginia and hit them with facts. We could organize a protest? From the permit application it looks like collectionpermits@dgif.virginia.gov is a valid email. Worth a shot? [edit: did not receive a response].

And now ~ back to the ABCs of Endangered Species.

Today’s featured celebrity is… TA DA…

the Blue Whale

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Bio:

OTHER NAMES

baleine bleue in French. Quel charme!

HABITAT

blue_whale_range_map

lol, everywhere 

IUCN says they live in every ocean except the arctic. More populous in Southern Chile, Gulf of California, and the Coral Triangle.

POPULATION

10,000 to 25,000

SIGNIFICANCE

beluga_58358.jpg

look at dat faaaace (this is not a blue whale)

So blue whales weigh – wait for it – THIRTY. THREE. ELEPHANTS. They literally weigh the same as 33 elephants. WHat. The largest animal on the planet and it’s louder than a jet. I can hear a jet now (I live near an airport) annnnd, let’s just say I ain’t wanna be near a blue whale when it gets mad. That is just crazy. Like, SeaWorld isn’t even gonna try to cram one of these things in one of its pathetic prison tanks. Imagine airlifting 33 elephants at a time? Omg.

So the significance of whales is that, well, first of all they exist and they have every right to exist just as much as we do. Also they are at the top of the food chain and therefore significantly impact marine ecosystems. Sort of like when my supervisor leaves for the week no one goes to work (is that just me?).

THREATS

Uhhhhh climate change? Habitat loss, toxins from all the trash we throw in the water (seriously littering should be a capital offense it is NOT hard to throw your stuff away and throwing your trash in water? what is wrong with people), toxins from other things like, idk, oil I would imagine. Also they can get into trouble with boats and get tangled up in fishing gear. I can’t imagine how puny fishing gear would be any match for one of these 33-elephant-fish but apparently it’s a serious threat to them. Also they eat krill and krill is disappearing. But let me clarify – they eat 4 tons of krill EACH. PER DAY. They eat four tons of food per day?! So jealous

Also pollution from big ships like barges harms whales by dirtying the oxygen they breath and the water they live in.

THE HELPERS

Sooo for one, World Wildlife Fund and other groups are tracking these babies and documenting the routes they take, so that hopefully those routes can become protected areas where no fishing is allowed. There is also the International Whaling Commission that big groups like WWF lobby for better protections for whales.

Also this group of helpers is encouraging big boats to slow down to help protect the whales. That’s neat.

HOW YOU CAN HELP

Unfortunately eating fish/seafood contributes to the problems whales face. The fishing industry often harms bigger fish when it rounds up the tiny fish for us to eat. I’m not like, preaching at you I’m just saying

You could symbolically adopt a whale through Defenders of Wildlife although I interviewed for a law school internship with them and didn’t get hired so can we really trust them

not bitter i swear

Help however you want. Tell your friends! Tell your cat if you prefer to spend time with your cat over humans. No judgment here.  Spread empathy, that may be a good place to start! Also do not throw your trash in the water  ~

Thanks for reading!

ABCs of Endangered Species

FRIENDS ~

 

It’s World Elephant Day.

 

Today, I choose to celebrate animals instead of stress over the convergence of the white nationalists and their unkempt facial hair onto DC.  I’ll also encourage you to donate money or share information with your friends or protest your local zoo, or order a pet portrait from me so that I can then give that money to elephants. Or protest Betsy DeVos as a human being, or… I don’t know, adopt one of these chickens from the Humane Rescue Alliance. However you want to celebrate.

 

This holiday (should be a federal holiday, right? Maybe I’ll skip work tomorrow, on principle) always makes me think a lot about the injustice of what’s happening to elephants, which usually spirals into a tornado of all of the injustices in the world.

 

Here’s something I thought about today.

 

I currently work in veterans’ law, dealing with disability appeals, and so I am more aware than I used to be about how policy affects veterans differently than other demographics. The New York Times covered Betsy DeVos’s decision to roll back transparency requirements that for-profit colleges are supposed to meet, that are supposed to protect prospective students. Not only is her decision transparently dirty, as most of her minions are involved in the for-profit college scam and get A LOT of money from taking advantage of students, but it can disproportionately affect veterans because of how they pay for school.

 

Please return to the ritzy hell whence you came, Betsy.

betsy_1

A 22,000 square foot summer home…? Who needs that?

 

I won’t go into it – you can read for yourself here and here, and also check out this informative presentation on why Mrs. DeVos and her eyebrows are evil. 

 

Anyway, this realization sort of strengthened my resolve to do better at work, to do better for elephants, to do better for many marginalized demographics, rather than sit around and complain. There are so many ways people can be taken advantage of, and conversely, so many ways to help.

 

It can be overwhelming to think about all of the terrible stuff going on, especially living in DC where complaining about policy and social justice issues is super posh. But I saw on instagram the other day (while making responsible use of my time) the quote by Mr. Rogers where he encourages us to “look for the helpers,” meaning that, where there is injustice, there are people trying to make it right.

o-MISTER-ROGERS-HELPERS-QUOTE-570

And those are the people we should look to for guidance, rather than seething over the purveyors of injustice. Focusing on the good that’s being done, and working to improve on that, is a much better source of motivation.

 

I recently attended a day of the Taking Action for Animals conference (TAFA), hosted by the Humane Society of the US every other year or so. First and foremost, I got to hear Allison Argo speak. She made the film about Shirley and Jenny, the two ex-circus elephants who were reunited after a long time apart and remembered each other. Watch this famous clip and let the tears flow freely.

 

More importantly, I got to immerse myself in a community of people who consider the compassionate treatment of animals to be common sense. It was invigorating and inspiring, and the food was pretty good. I got to hear people speak passionately about tiny birds, big cats, and horseshoe crabs, and it reminded me that all animals deserve as much attention as elephants. A little blind dog gnawed on my hand. It was glorious.

 

Working in animal welfare is tough, as is other employment in which you mostly deal with the worst people in society, some from your home state. A pretty clear secondary theme of the conference was to focus on the good being done, to remember all the achievements of the past few years to strengthen resolve moving forward.

 

In honor of focusing on the good, and remembering the marginalized, I wanted to highlight other species besides elephants that need our attention, while also focusing on the ways people are already helping them. And, because art is therapeutic, I’m drawing them (sorry, not sorry).

 

In honor of World Elephant MONTH 2018, I present to you

 

the ABCs of endangered species

 

 

Sure, it’s sad that these gorgeous and unique animals are endangered, but yay for the groups working to save them.

 

Our first celebrity endangered species is, behold,

 

the Amur Leopard.

 

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Hisssss

 

Bio:

 

OTHER NAMES

 

Far East leopard, Manchurian leopard, or Korean leopard.

 

 

HABITAT

 

Northeastern China and the Russian Far East – also known as Amur-Heilong. More specifically, according to Science Daily, the Primorskii Province of Russia and the Jilin Province of China. I know nothing about these places.

The-current-range-of-the-Amur-leopard-popu-lation_Q320

 

POPULATION

 

Like 84 – which is an increase from the 30 counted in 2000, and 70 in 2015.

 

 

SIGNIFICANCE

 

Like many other endangered species, conserving the Amur leopard’s habitat benefits the other species that live there, like tigers and deer. Plus, the Amur leopard can jump 19 feet in the air – that’s reason enough to warrant saving it (and to warrant staying the hell away from it).

 

But, similarly to elephants, why don’t we consider saving them because they are animals, and they’re worth saving. Moreover, since its sort of our fault as humans that they’re in trouble, then it is our duty as humans to right that wrong.

 

 

THREATS

 

A few things. Its habitat is shrinking, and its being poached for its beautiful coat. Obviously my drawing won’t do it justice, so here is an actual photo.

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d/b/a Beyonce

 

 

It also suffers from a shortage of prey (like deer), which also benefit from habitat conservation.

 

 

THE HELPERS

 

Thankfully, the Land of the Leopard National Park was established in Russia in 2012, giving the leopards 650,000 acres of safe space to roam. It was largely this move that allowed the population to begin to recover.

 

 

 

HOW YOU CAN HELP

 

Thoughts and prayers! Just kidding, that doesn’t work.

 

Though I’m skeptical about where donor dollars go with big organizations, feel free to adopt a leopard through WWF for $55 – you get an adorable plush toy in return.

 

Um…. go to North Korea and herd their leopards across the Russian border? Maybe don’t do that either. For several reasons.

 

Find ways to support groups that are working to save them? Yes. You’re smart – do this however you want.

Boycott Betsy DeVos for funsies? Somehow, this will help.

Boycott zoos? Definitely. (BTW, just because some animals live longer in captivity doesn’t mean they live well… It’s still inhumane to cage wild animals).

Tell your friends how cute Amur leopards are and how high they can jump? Absolutely.

Do things that make you happy and be nice to others? Good place to start.

 

Happy World Elephant Month! ❤

Ethical Animal Tourism – SE Asia

Hey friends ~

 

How’s everyone feeling? If you feel good, I’m jealous of you. Everyone in the apartment is sick right now. Not to be excluded, even the cat threw up on the shag rug this morning. Now I have about 30 minutes of energy left in me, so let’s talk about elephants again.

 

The only tv I could handle today was Anthony Bourdain’s Parts Unknown on very low volume. One of the first episodes was filmed in Myanmar, which is where The Elephant Project is looking to build a sanctuary. It reminded me that recently, a few friends have asked me about visiting elephants in Thailand and how to do it responsibly.

 

I have mixed feelings about visiting elephants. I wonder sometimes if all elephant tourism stopped, if eventually people would just leave them alone in the wild. This is obviously not true, as human-elephant conflict will never allow both parties to live in peace (I care about humans, too!). Maybe elephant tourism is a necessary evil. Some animal rights extremists say owning pets is a necessary evil, and that all domesticated pets should be neutered/spayed so that eventually they will die out. I don’t think that’s happening anytime soon, and neither is the end of elephant tourism. Plus, I’m thankful that at least people want to see elephants in their native countries, as opposed to some pathetic zoo over here. 

 

So,

Six rules for a responsible elephant sighting in southeast Asia.

 

 

 

#1  Take your chances

 

If you won’t be devastated by potentially not seeing an elephant, I would suggest visiting a national park or reserve, where the animals roam completely free. For example, according to this article it’s pretty easy to spot an elephant in Minneriya National Park in Sri Lanka during certain months of the year. I’m sure this is true in Thailand, where there are a bunch of national parks.

 

I know it’s tempting to visit somewhere that you know you’ll be able to interact with an elephant. Who wouldn’t? I would pee in my pants if I got to meet an elephant. But the point of seeing an elephant is seeing it happy, exhibiting behaviors like it would in the wild (waving its tail, flapping its ears, constantly on the move). Who wants to see an elephant that’s been beaten into submission? It’s not worth it. Please, if you can, take your chances. Your elephant karma will be high, maybe that increases your chances of seeing a family!

 

 

#2  No riding

 

 

Most people know this by now (hopefully), but under no circumstances should you ride an elephant. Who are you, Aladdin? Who needs to ride an elephant? Nobody. No matter what the reviews say, no nothing. Those elephants were most likely beaten as infants and are chained when they’re not working. Plus, even if trained elephants were treated humanely, spending money on this activity supports this form of tourism, which increases the demand, which increases the abuse endured by elephants in the industry. Spend your money other ways in the country if you want to help.  

 

#3  Do not. ride. any wild animals.

 

Just don’t. I can’t even post a photo of western tourists riding elephants because they look so. stupid.

 

snape

 

 

#4  Keep it on the elephants terms

 

Elephant Nature Park, right outside of Chiang Mai, Thailand, has the best reviews by “woke” tourists – most people picked up on the fact that every interaction at ENP was “on the elephants’ terms.”

 

You shouldn’t visit places that have trained the elephants to do anything for you. To be trained, an elephant usually has to be broken, first.

 

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NO…….

Here’s a documentary about domesticating an elephant if you really need to be convinced: Yes, it’s PETA, just watch it.

 

 

#5  Use common sense

 

Now that you know an elephant shouldn’t be performing tricks for you, pay attention to the interactions between the mahouts and elephants. Read all the reviews you can. Ask what happens to the elephants when the place is closed. Are they chained or allowed to roam? I’ve read a lot of reviews from people who said they decided not to stay at a place because it “seemed fishy.” If something doesn’t feel right, don’t stay.

Do the animals look healthy? Do they have visible wounds?

 

Do they look like this?

bad-elephant-drawing.gif

Definitely a bad sign.

 

Are the elephants separated or together, in groups that resemble their original family structures? If it feels bad, it probably is.

 

 

#6  Finally, apply this knowledge to other animals

 

Elephants aren’t the only animals exploited for tourism money. See what happened at the famous Tiger Temple a few years ago.  And now they want to open a zoo next door! Don’t visit a zoo, don’t visit a “menagerie.” You should only be viewing animals in an environment as close to their natural habitat as possible.

 

tiger

Mood

 

There are a ton of web articles about ethical elephant experiences, but the best advice is to use your common sense. If you feel that an elephant is being mistreated, don’t stay. If you feel an elephant is being mistreated at a place that claims to be ethical/rehabilitating/sanctuary, tell someone! Leave a review! Contact the owners. Blow up Trip Advisor. It’s important, now more than ever, for us to be responsible with our tourist dollars.

 

 

 

So, if you’re going to Thailand, or anywhere else in SE Asia, I’m jealous. I also hope you’ll spend your dollars wisely. It just takes a little bit of research but it’s totally worth it for the elephant babies – and for other animals too! Beware of any group that’s making an animal perform for you.

The Gift of Empathy

Let’s talk about empathy, and an animal that displays it at shockingly high levels – the elephant.

What is empathy? My understanding is that it’s the ability to put one’s self in the position of someone or something else. For example, when we see pain in an animal, human or otherwise, it bothers most of us. We may not do this consciously, but what we’re doing is sort of imagining what that being is experiencing by virtually placing ourselves in that situation. And when we’re in that virtual situation, we think, “I don’t like this…  they probably don’t like it either.” And then we feel bad.

Empathy is somewhat easier to have when the pain and suffering is in our face.  But as individuals we are exposed to such a small percentage of what’s happening in the world.  From an animal welfare/rights perspective, most of the pain and suffering non-human animals experience is purposely hidden from us.  For example, meat is packaged nicely at the grocery store and ag-gag laws prevent us from seeing what really goes into getting that meat packaged even if we wanted to know. Some dog breeders won’t show you where the animals are kept – they just show up with a cute lil puppy in a parking lot somewhere, or sell puppies to a clean pet store. Even more subtle, zoos put lonely, depressed animals on display and then tell us that they’re fine, that their behavior is natural. But, none of this is the whole story. And, it is much harder for us to imagine the ways in which these animals suffer when we are not seeing it firsthand. I submit that these days, none of us can claim ignorance regarding animal suffering anymore. Everyone is on blast, and even if they are not, in these trying times we should all have a healthy level of skepticism about…. well, everything.

It takes what I like to call “advanced empathy” to have the same feelings of compassion and shared suffering when we can’t see an animal suffering firsthand. The good news is that a lot of people have advanced empathy. The bad news is that a LOT of people do not. (looking at you, NRA).

 Let’s take a behind the scenes look at the current administration’s demented game of ping-pong with the ivory ban:

  • Admin:  we’ll lift the ivory ban for no apparent reason
  • Animal advocates: WHAT, elephants are on their way to extinction and they’re having their tusks ripped from their faces. How is sending Americans on hunting safaris going to solve this problem what is wrong with you everyone knows even the DC Circuit OMG 
  • Admin: okay maybe we won’t, that sounds kinda bad
  • NRA and SCI: here is money also can we join your board 
  • Admin: Ban lifted! Who cares about elephants

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“I CAN’T, AND I CAN’T” 

This is a great example of a situation in which knowledge and empathy (if they exist) aren’t enough. Empathy might have a stronger pull than the mechanical choice between good versus bad. Unfortunately, empathy and money aren’t comparable foes, so where the process breaks down is in our weaponry. Animal advocates are attempting to inject empathy into the decision-making process, and the gun lizards are just using money. It’s really a disappointing mess.

So what do animal advocates do? Animal advocacy isn’t a rich-people sport like hunting. We are tired of the “small victories” being overshadowed by the endless suffering that no one in charge seems to care about. It feels like constant loss and it’s depressing. (Spoiler alert: there is no resolution in this poorly organized blog post).

I for one have decided to embrace my own empathetic tendencies. Sure, it means I get sad easier. But if I can muster the energy to turn my feelings into actions, then I have an endless supply of ammunition. I will never run out of empathy, but my opponents may eventually run out of money or power.

 

 

Oh yeah – elephants.

Elephants are SUPER empathetic.

Just one of the many reasons we should strive to be more like them.  Elephants grieve for their dead, help each other, and show signs of emotional stress when another elephant is hurt.  

The elephants also ran to stand beside their friend, touched her with their trunks to soothe her, and made soft chirping sounds. Sometimes one would even put her trunk inside the other’s mouth, a behavior elephants find particularly comforting, the researchers say.

Brb going to find a stressed-out person so I can stick my nose in their mouth.

Also, elephants are proactive in displaying empathy, from World Animal Protection’s blog:

Scientists have observed many cases of maternal and non-maternal elephants defending calves from dangerous situations such as chasing predators away, stopping aggressive play fights or pushing other individuals away. Such situations do not always elicit distress or pain signals in the calf, and so the protector elephants are predicting their potential distress, rather than just responding to cues.

So the elephants are predicting distress, not just responding to cues.

I don’t know a lot of humans with this level of empathy.  Dedicated to looking out for the well-being of others, rather than just trouble shooting.  We need to save elephants not just because we think they are like us, but because they are literally better than us.

So the knowledge that animals are suffering should be sufficient to encourage us to make changes in our daily lives that benefit them. But the best way to help animals is to change the way we think about them.  And not just the way we think about animals, but how we think about anything going on in the world that doesn’t directly concern us at an individual level.  The greater good. Whatever you want to call it. Let’s challenge ourselves to broaden our perspective, and shift our decision making accordingly.

Sure, consuming fewer animals products, perhaps going completely vegan, speaking out, volunteering, donating, etc, are all good ways to help.  Taking any sort of action for animals propagates more action. Let’s start by recognizing we owe it to ourselves as a collective mankind to hold everyone’s interests, including animal interests, in high regard. 

 

15 TED Talks to watch if you care about Elephants

 

TED talks are my favorite videos on YouTube besides funny animal videos. I guess TED talks are my favorite videos to watch when I want to feel productive. Because I just started a new law job (yay!) that is super writing-focused and has a billable hour requirement, I am spending a LOT of time in an office.. at a desk.. staring at a computer monitor. To stay somewhat sane, I have (a) brought a cactus into the office, whom I have named Four Ninety-Nine for reasons you’ll probably figure out on your own; (b) displayed a few pieces of my own art to remind me of other things I like to do (See cover photo); and (c) started working my way through every TED talk in existence.

 

IMG_0979

Four Ninety-Nine

 

*Note:  My absolute favorite talk of all time is Elizabeth Gilbert’s, entitled “Your Elusive Creative Genius.” It is honest and candid, but presented seamlessly and covers a fascinating array of topics- from the author being afraid of seaweed (same, girl – mushrooms) to the Greek origins of the idea of a creative genius. It is truly a work of art and half of the views are mine……… OKAY FINE I am going to play it while I write the rest of this post.

 

Anyway, I’ve compiled 15 talks that talk about elephants, conservation, or related issues that I think are still presented in an awesome way. (There are some talks out there that I think have the right message, but are boring.)

 

Now I can’t write because I keep going back to the youtube tab to watch Elizabeth Gilbert… BRB.

 

one hour later

 

Alright so here are the 15 talks that made my list, in no particular order and with unhelpful insights attached to each. Enjoy!

 

Caitlin O’Connell-Rodwell – “Family Structure of Elephants

This lady has researched elephants for 20 years, so her two videos are like cliff notes on how elephants live their lives. Basically, elephants are just like us and have big personalities – go figure.

Caitlin O’Connell-Rodwell – “The Secret Lives of Elephants

When elephants feel threatened, sometimes they point their butts at you and “sniff” over their shoulders.. so cute. 

 

Andrew Stewart – “Are Elephants Worth Saving?

Apparently we can fit more people into Fenway Park than there are Asian elephants left on earth… what. I like his perspective on human/elephant conflict: he observes that the people living in elephant range countries have the same right to protect themselves from elephants as we do to protect ourselves from, say, bears. And so, conservationists need to do better taking into consideration the needs of the human inhabitants of range countries. I also like his reminder that elephants are a super keystone species in that they support whole ecosystems.  He says if you are going to pick ONE species to save, elephants are the best candidate. Save elephants → save land → save plants → save other species. He also reminds us that America is the second largest ivory market behind China. Come on!

 

Dr. Susan Canney – “Punch Above Your Weight: Mali Elephant Project

She talks about supporting and growing an elephant conservation project in a place affected by war… with a dope accent.

 

Patrick Freeman – “Elephant Rumbles

AH this guy loves elephants so much! He studies them but also makes poetry about them. This is an artistic piece followed by a quick reminder at the end to not buy ivory. I love it. 

 

Alex Gendler – “Why Elephants Never Forget

A cute and informative lesson on elephants, how they can have PTSD and why their memories are good. Note the manipulative elephant eyebrow raise at 2:48.

 

Brad Spanbauer – “A World Without Elephants

A great talk but honestly I am just excited to finally know how to pronounce the word “baobab.” Apparently it sounds like “bay-oh-bab.” I’ve been guessing, usually saying “bow-bab” the three or so times per year I use the word. Not relevant.

 

Josh Plotnik – “How Can Elephants Inspire Children to Think Critically?

I remember reading this guy’s NPR interview when researching elephants in law school. This talk is cute and thoughtful. And, he did research at Emory! Huzzah

 

Johan du Toit – “An Idea for Humanity, from a considerate elephant

I really like this one. He says we should be more considerate and uses elephants as an example of how to do that. Apparently his little daughter was at a watering hole when a herd of elephants showed up to drink, and one elephant made the rest of them stand back while the little girl scrambled away from them. Like, they waited respectfully for her to finish her business even though that was totally their turf. So sweet. And, he says if all of humanity started behaving like the average American, we would need 4 earths to sustain that behavior. Ugh, truth hurts. 

 

George Monbiot – “Re-Wild the World

See for yourself.

 

Corneille Ewango – “Hero of the Congo Forest

This guy’s grandfather was a poacher, so he grew up helping poach endangered species. Now he works to combat poaching. He also mentions that a lot of materials we use, we don’t realize have a bad effect on the environment. Like, materials in our cell phones F up the congo. Humans are the worst how did we get to this point

 

Damien Mander – “Modern Warrior

Far and away the most quotable of all these talks. Also, this guy has “Search & Destroy” tattooed across his chest. He begins the talk powerfully, saying about animals, “Their suffering is my grief.” He also talks about humans suffering from speciesism and Peter Singer’s equal consideration of interests, which I got really into in law school. This guy is a super bad ass.

Damien Mander – “From Sniper to Rhino Conservationist

Starts off with a story of a baby rhino named Piglet CAN YOU EVEN

 

Geraldine Morelli – “Wildlife Conservation and the Art of Letting Go

In a brilliant French accent, she talks about two ways to love animals. The first type is really a fascination with animals where we put our interests first, and the second is wanting what is best for the animals. Take one guess which one is better for the animals. While working with monkeys she befriended one named Gizmo, and talked about having to “let go” when Gizmo was being assimilated back into the wild. And, I agree with her observation that now, we don’t need to watch animals in captivity. We have webcams like the ones in Kruger National Park to watch animals in real time. There is literally no excuse anymore to keep large species in captivity. 

 

Ron Kagan – “Animal Welfare and the Future of Zoos

He was director of the Detroit Zoo when they gave up their elephants because they weren’t thriving there. It was a bold step at a time when elephants brought a lot of money to zoos. He talks about this at 14:55. 

Through an internship a few years back, I got to go to Detroit and tour the zoo with him after hours. I remember getting choked up seeing an alligator in a really small enclosure, and even more upset watching the polar bears crawl around in the summer heat. While I’m proud of the zoo for taking steps to educate people about animals and elephants in particular, I just can’t get over the rest of the species that remain in captivity, in enclosures too small and unnatural for them to thrive.  Blah.

 

Hope you enjoyed these!

Laws Affecting Elephant Conservation Part 3 of 3: State Law

Hello! Welcome to Overview of Current Laws that Affect Elephants Part III of III: State Laws. 

Revisit Part 1

Revisit Part 2

I really can’t with state and local law but here we go.

 

First, Animal Legal Defense Fund puts out a report ranking states in terms of their animal protection laws. Understandably, these laws are geared more toward small animal (pet) welfare. It is pretty insightful – a lot of the laws you probably wouldn’t even think about. Some states provide mental health evaluations for animal abusers. That’s pretty cool!

 

The top five states were

  1. Illinois
  2. Oregon
  3. Maine
  4. California
  5. Rhode Island

 

The bottom five states were

  1. North Dakota
  2. Utah
  3. Wyoming
  4. Iowa
  5. Kentucky

 

So…… okay.

 

Every state has some animal protection law. States regulate abuse of pets, sometimes abuse of farm animals, and exotic pets. This is because exotic pets (think: crazy birds, tigers, and monkeys) are dangerous, and often people that buy these animals don’t know what the heck they are doing. Also, a lot of states have wildlife native to the state, so they have to regulate that, too. Elephants don’t fall into any one of these categories – no one wants a pet elephant, no one farms elephants, and elephants aren’t native to any part of the US. They are only here as part of a zoo, sanctuary, circus, or in ivory form.

 

lolelephantquote

 

It’s rare to come across specific protections for elephants. Some states have taken the step to ban the ivory trade within the state, making exceptions for super old items, items with very little ivory in them, musical instruments with little ivory, and inherited items. Anyway, here are some laws I’ve come across that pertain to elephants.

 

 

Alabama: ?

  • You can’t game-hunt an elephant in Alabama, so don’t even try.

 

Alaska: N/A

  • You need a separate permit to exhibit an elephant, which in turn requires three things: (1) intent to exhibit the elephant commercially; (2) facilities to maintain elephant under “positive control” and “humane conditions;” and (3) insurance. I don’t think this is a big issue in Alaska. They are more worried about mammoth ivory, which experts say is very distinguishable from elephant ivory. #SavetheWoollyMammoth

 

California: Super Yay

  • First, California is pretty progressive when it comes to animal welfare. Well, activism in general (hippies!).
  • California banned ivory sales in 2015. This action closed the loopholes in an ivory ban that was already in place in the state. 
  • Second, it makes abusing an elephant its own misdemeanor. That’s pretty specific. 
  • Banned the use of bullhooks and other “training” devices on elephants. 

 

Florida: Boo

  • Florida has a specific statute for elephant ownership and care. Pro: it prohibits keeping an elephant as a pet. That’s good? Con: It allows for elephant rides, mobile elephant exhibits, and other sad things. Furthermore, any elephant taking part in this nonsense has to be “tethered,” i.e. chained, or enclosed by an electric fence when not being exploited.
  • Plus, the caging requirements made a stupid exception to the required “daily untethered movement,” saying the elephant can be tethered at all times for “security or breeding purposes.” That’s a really broad exception. Only after 14 straight days does the captor have to get a veterinarian’s note. Ridiculous. I can’t talk about Florida anymore.

 

Hawaii: Yay

  • Bans the sale of ivory 

 

Indiana: ?

  • Indiana mentions elephants in their Wildlife Protection Act, but I can’t really tell what’s going on. Elephants are mentioned only in the trophy hunting sections, but not as the subject of the hunting. 
  • I also don’t know about this ranch – what is going on in Indiana?
  • I honestly don’t understand. Someone help.

 

lol obama

 

  • petition to build a wall around indiana

 

New Jersey: Yay

  • Bans the sell of ivory 

 

New York: Yay!

  • New York has already banned ivory, and recently banned the use of elephants in “entertainment,” i.e. circuses and carnivals. Way to go NY, I loved you anyway. 

 

Ohio: Boo

  • Specifically allows for circuses and elephant back rides at the circuses as an exception to its “dangerous animal ban,” which would usually include elephants. Mmm.

 

Oregon: Yay

  • Bans the sale of ivory with a few exceptions. 

 

Rhode Island: Yay?

  • Banned the use of the bullhook and other weapons against elephants, including baseball bats. BASEBALL BATS. On an animal. Is everyone crazy? 

 

Tennessee: Let’s do more, TN!

  • Trained elephants can have contact with the public, and can be “tethered,” while other Class I species cannot. I don’t know. Maybe this is for the benefit of the Elephant Sanctuary in TN. 
  • Please don’t tether the elephants, everyone. Leave them alone.

 

Texas: ?

  • In Texas, if your elephant wanders off your property, your neighbors and/or the local police have to try to locate you. What in tarnation –
  • But this Dallas-based company exists that lets the public rent elephants for events in Texas. They also offer dwarf actors and “living tables,” and we’ll see if they respond to my email asking for information on how the elephants are taken care of.   This doesn’t have anything to do with Texas law…… YET.

 

Vermont: Almost!

  • An ivory ban didn’t quite make it, despite the awesome efforts of Ivory Free Vermont. In this interview, a representative of Ivory Free Vermont references Lawrence Anthony’s herd mourning his death.
  • Critics said the ban would only be a “drop in the bucket” in the ivory market since the real demand comes from China. Drops are how buckets get filled up! That’s how water works, people… I officially can’t with Vermont.

 

Washington: Yay

  • Total ivory ban, unless the ivory is proven to be at least 100 years old, or the item is less than 15% ivory. The “Save Animals Facing Extinction” Act also protects other species. This initiative got a LOT of support. 

 

That’s all I have for state law. Moving forward, I’ll be writing more about elephant traits, symbolism, and the philosophy behind conserving the species… with a little law sprinkled in, of course. Stay tuned and thank you for your support!

Elephants & the Law is re-branding – and a fun new word.

We are now The Elephant Advocate!

 

“Elephants & the Law,” while a great name, is a little bit limiting. There are some issues I’d like to write about that don’t fit into the “& the Law” description. “The Advocate” is already taken, so “Elephant Advocate” it is.

 

As always, I double-checked the definition of “advocate” before committing, because, you just never know. One of the “slang” synonyms of advocate is “libber.” A “libber” calls for the liberation of people or animals. I suppose it’s short for liberationist – Is liberationist a word? Google says yes. I toyed with the idea of re-branding to “the Libber,” but I don’t think I fit that description, and also the word sounds like “liver.”

 

libber.png

 

I have some interesting stuff coming for you guys soon. Thanks for your patience while we figure out what this blog should look like.

 

For now, here is an interesting article outlining what happens with dollars given to elephant charities. Educate yourselves!

 

Happy Thursday!

 

Bonus Cocktail Post – Amarula Liqueur

 

When I posted the Bonus World Elephant Day Cocktail Post, I almost regretted it because I thought, I’ll never have another elephant conservation-related cocktail idea.

 

Wrong! Fake news.

 

Introducing….

 

IMG_7959

Amarula 

 

If you haven’t heard of Amarula (I hadn’t until recently), it’s a liqueur made of sugar, cream, and brandy distilled from the fruit of the Marula tree. The liqueur is made in South Africa.

amarula tree

Marula Tree

 

 

From The Whisky Exchange:

Distilled from the fermented fruit of the Marula tree, a native of the African plains. The spirit is aged for three years, then blended with cream. If you like Bailey’s you should give this a try.

marula fruit

 

 

You can read another good description on The Manual.

 

The most important thing to note about Amarula: it is D E L I C I O U S. It tastes like toffee and caramel with a hint of something weird and wonderful, but it’s not so thick that it feels like drinking glue (Glue is Gross, or, Why I Have Issues With Eggnog). Amarula has really struck the perfect balance of cream/toffee/sweetness/fruit.

 

Elephant Conservation

 

The main reason I am down with Amarula is because the company supports elephant research and local women’s groups in South Africa. They started the Amarula Trust to focus on elephants. The researchers collar and track elephants that are caught up in Human Elephant Conflict (HEC), then they track the elephants’ movements and patterns to help reduce negative run-ins with humans. 

 

amarula trust

 

They also started a campaign recently called Name Them Save Them, where you can choose, design, name, and share a virtual african elephant. I did and named her Louise. #saveLouise

 

Louise

 

The Amarula bottle is sold with a gold tassel around the neck, which is hand-crafted by women at Sir Lowry’s Pass, a poor village nearby in South Africa. These women live in extreme poverty, and some have never worked before. Through this expanding project, the women have access to exercise classes, parenting training, and english classes.

 

How It’s Made

 

My understanding* is that locals in the Limpopo province of South Africa harvest and sell the fruit to the distiller. The fruit is checked for ripeness and then put through a “washing, stoning, and pulping process.” And…

 

From The Scotsman:

“The contribution to the local economy does not end here. The stones are given back to the community because the kernel is an edible nut of the cashew family and the shell can also be used in the production of face cream. Both are useful sources of additional revenue for a far-from-prosperous area.”

 

At some point it’s blended with cream and sugar.

I love that Amarula is a liqueur with social awareness.

 

How To Drink It

 

Like a lot of other websites have said, Amarula is best enjoyed over ice or neat.

 

Some other interesting recipes I stumbled across:

 

These are great (2 out of 3), but I was determined to come up with my own cocktail. So I purchased a bottle and a few other ingredients, and got to work. 

 

 

IMG_7960

Every time I see this photo I think of Beyoncé saying, “Okay ladies now let’s get in formation,” except I say babies instead of ladies. Because baby liquor bottles.

 

 

Since Amarula and Kahlua seem to be considered distant cousins, and I do enjoy a good White or Black Russian, I thought a play on those sounded nice.

 

After hours of practice I ended up with the Russian Rose™. Its deceivingly simple ingredients caused me trouble, but if you break up the steps you end up with a smooth, sort of frothy pastel pink drink. The cocktail is creamy, sweet, and packs a punch. (Note: Amarula uses real, although local, cream. If you usually avoid dairy, proceed with caution).

 

Russian Rose

 

What’s cute is that I tried to mix vodka, Amarula, and a little grenadine together just to taste, and was surprised when the grenadine turned into little specks. When I dumped a little lemon juice into the mixture (not sure why), and the entire concoction turned into a Cement Mixer shot, I realized I had a curdling situation on my hands. No worries, I worked it out for you.

 

Instructions:

 

  1. Shake 1 ½ oz vodka with ¼ oz grenadine. Strain into one of your shaker tins.
  2. Add lots of ice to shaker tin with pink vodka, and start stirrin’. (May need to youtube how to properly to stir cocktail).
  3. While stirring, slowly pour 1 oz of Amarula into vodka/ice. This should prevent curdling. (After tasting, decide if you want to change your ratios to your taste).
  4. Pop the other shaker tin on and shake that mixture. Strain into chilled martini glass.
  5. Enjoy!

 

IMG_7969      IMG_7970

 

IMG_7971

 

The grenadine should add color, not too much taste. The Amarula is sweet enough without it. Honestly, I just wanted vodka and Amarula.. But.. pink.

 

We got lucky with this liqueur, folks. If it was, say, Sambuca, mushrooms, or eggnog wanting to help elephants, I would really be in an ethical dilemma. Taste-testing would not be quite as fun.

 

If all else fails, just throw some Amarula in your coffee. Taste-tested and approved by me.

 

I hope you enjoy reading, dreaming, and wistfully thinking about this cocktail, and I hope you name and save an elephant!

 

Keep Calm if you Can

Laws That Affect Elephant Conservation Pt. 2 of 3 – US Federal Law

 

Hello readers,

 

Thanks again for visiting and welcome to Part II of my rambling overview of the laws that affect elephants and other large species. The last post in this series covered CITES and other international agreements, and this post will cover US federal law.

 

Elephant flag scooter sombrero

 

Unity!

 

US Federal Law: 5 Relephant Statutes

  1. Endangered Species Act 1973
  2. The Lacey Act of 1900
  3. African Elephant Conservation Act 1989
  4. Asian Elephant Conservation Act 1997
  5. Animal Welfare Act 1966

 

Endangered Species Act  

 

Remember how I said CITES isn’t automatically law in countries that signed it? (sure you do!) Well, the ESA makes CITES federal law.

 

The ESA more or less does four things:

  1. identifies a species as endangered or threatened;
  2. determines whether there is a critical habitat for the species within the US;
  3. restricts government and private action against that species; and
  4. says the government now has to help save the species.

 

Let’s apply that to elephants.

  1. The ESA listed the Asian elephant as endangered in 1976, and the African elephant as threatened in 1978, loosely based on how the species are classified by CITES.
  2. Because elephants are not native to the US, they don’t have a designated critical habitat.
  3. Under the ESA, the government now cannot do anything that will further harm the elephant species. For private parties, however, the Act prohibits a number of actions. The Act says a private party cannot “take” a species – a legal term that has a broad definition. It basically means that a private entity cannot do anything to harm the species. (This is where I take issues with zoos – to be discussed later).
  4. Finally, the ESA instructs the government to take action to help elephants. So, the government passed the two acts we will discuss in a second, the African and Asian Elephant Conservation Acts.

 

The biggest problems with the ESA in general deal with provisions that don’t really affect elephants, mainly land-use provisions.

 

The biggest problem with the ESA as it pertains to elephants is all of the exceptions it makes for people that want to import elephants. BornFreeUsa.org has a really clear explanation of this process. It goes like this: if someone wants to import an endangered species, all they have to do is say that it is for “scientific purposes,” or, more commonly, that it will “enhance the propagation or survival of the species.” And they get a “Section 10” permit to import the elephant. 

 

The requirements to get these permits are vague, and so permits are way easy to get, and species are not being conserved or protected like the permit owners/importers are promising.

 

Lacey Act

 

The Lacey Act of 1900 (last updated in 1981) makes it illegal to trade across state lines in any species that is obtained illegally. Aka, it targets wildlife traffickers. How is it different from the ESA? The Lacey Act “underscores” other acts, by making trafficking a separate crime. The Lacey Act is older than most other relevant legislation, but according to this article, “still powerful.” So, since there is a ban on ivory imports in the US, anyone possessing or trading raw ivory in the US could probably be prosecuted under the Lacey Act. Cool!

 

African Elephant Conservation Act of 1989

 

Since the US is a party to CITES and passed the ESA, the US has accepted the responsibility to do something to improve the situation of the endangered African elephant. Congress dutifully passed this act, which establishes the African Elephant Conservation Fund, which gives money to the 37 African range countries (countries with elephant populations), and gives grants to projects that work in those countries. The act also establishes a moratorium (I had to look up this word – it means “suspension of an activity”) on the importation of ivory unless a bunch of conditions are met.

 

What conditions? Are the restrictions restrict-y enough?

 

Well, the Act still says sport hunting of elephants is okay, so strike one. Basically, if an ivory-producing country that is a party to CITES has “submitted a quota,” and the hunter “takes” (kills) the elephant in that country, he/she can import the “trophy” (tusks). An executive order under the Obama administration limited trophy imports to two, per hunter, per year.

 

Ivory restrictions

 

There are a few requirements a country has to meet for its ivory to be imported to the US. The country has to comply with and be a party to CITES, the country’s conservation program has to be up to snuff, etc.

 

But, right now all ivory trade is prohibited under CITES, because even the Appendix II populations have little asterisks next to their listings that include those populations’ ivory in Appendix I. So it looks like this Act’s exceptions are pre-empted (means they don’t even matter, because there is a stricter rule out there). This is crazy, but good.

 

Soo….. Is ivory banned in the US? Pretty much, according to National Geographic last year, but not under this act. Click here for a good explanation of what President Obama’s ivory ban does.

 

IMG_7927.jpg

Asian Elephant Conservation Act of 1997

 

Structured similarly to its African counterpart, this act creates a fund as well. The fund has sent money to eight Asian countries, including Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Indonesia. There is nothing about ivory or trophy hunting in this act, since Asian elephants are often tusk-less.

 

There are SO few Asian elephants left. This grant process should absolutely be utilized more by American non-profits.

 

Animal Welfare Act of 1966

 

When it was passed, the AWA was called the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act, because it was sort of in response to people’s pets being petnapped and sold to research laboratories. That’s pretty horrifying. And it prompted investigations into standards of care at all these labs, and apparently the labs were not doing so well providing luxurious conditions for their research animals.

 

So now we have the AWA, which sets standards of care for warm-blooded animals, but excludes rats and mice, and farm animals, AND cold-blooded animals. So really, only cute/furry animals. What?

 

IMG_7925

 

But it’s better than nothing, and people are always making noise about strengthening the law, and giving it more dollars to operate.

 

What does it mean for elephants?

 

Well, the AWA, by law, applies to “exhibitors,” which includes zoos and circuses. It prohibits keeping animals in conditions with “overheating,” “trauma,” “excessive cooling,” “physical harm,” and “unnecessary discomfort.” It only suggests the very minimum standards of care for animals.

 

What are the problems?

 

The problems with the AWA as it pertains to elephants deal with vagueness, weak standards, and enforcement. Some terms in the act such as “unnecessary discomfort,” are not defined. What is “unnecessary?” What is “discomfort?” The standards are not clearly outlined for different types of species. More importantly, even if the standards were higher, there are only a handful of inspectors for thousands of zoos and circuses. It’s unlikely problems will ever be uncovered.

 

Another reason the AWA does not do much to help elephants besides prohibit huge, obvious acts of mistreatment, is because elephants require more than other species. Elephants need more space to constantly move; they need to be able to forage for their food; and they need to socialize with elephants of their own herd. These needs are simply not taken into account by the AWA.

 

State and Local Law will be covered in Part III! Thank you for reading.